The Brain of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): A Stereotaxic Atlas

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The marmoset is an ideal animal model for modern neurological research because of the species' convenient body size, ease of handling, and the fundamental similarity of its neuroanatomy to the human brain.

The Stereotaxic and Chemoarchitectural Atlas of the Brain of the Common Marmoset Callithrix jacchus is the most detailed atlas of the marmoset brain available. The companion DVD includes all the images in full color. Read more Read less. Amazon Global Store US International products have separate terms, are sold from abroad and may differ from local products, including fit, age ratings, and language of product, labeling or instructions.

Manufacturer warranty may not apply Learn more about Amazon Global Store. Review "[This book] provides researchers the most comprehensive collection of marmoset brain images gathered in one reference to date. No customer reviews.

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Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Discover the best of shopping and entertainment with Amazon Prime. Prime members enjoy FREE Delivery on millions of eligible domestic and international items, in addition to exclusive access to movies, TV shows, and more. Details are presented in Appendix 9. We inject each site with an anterograde and a retrograde tracer in separate animals. Our approach is conservative: better availability and utilization of colors in the tracers could permit more injections per animal. Notably, we are able to process significantly more injections per animal than is possible with single-color 2-photon light microscopy, which is important for a primate species such as the marmoset to minimize the number of animals used.

1st Edition

Classical neuroanatomical studies may place multiple injections in separate animals at a single target to address biological variation. This is impractical for the current approach, it would require too many animals. Additionally, we tailor injections to the individual variations in animals when using in-vivo MRI guidance to target specific sub-cortical nuclei and using landmarks in injecting cortical sites.

Finally, results from different animals are mapped onto a common reference atlas using diffeomorphic mapping utilizing the cytoarchitectonic contrast present in the multimodal histological data gathered in the pipeline. In these ways the grid-approach addresses the issues of individual variation.

1st Edition

An analysis of brain compartment size variations across animals, as well as of the injection-size variations, is presented in Appendix Three types of fluorescent neural tracers were injected into the brain to reveal the mesoscale neural connectivity. The four sets of sections: Nissl, myelin, CTB and fluorescent sections were processed and imaged separately, and later re-assembled computationally.

A computational pipeline was established to perform high-throughput image processing. A common reference atlas Hashikawa et al. Female marmosets Callithrix jacchus , 4 to 8 years old, g - g in weight, were acquired from the Japanese Central Institute for Experimental Animals.

Upon habituation, the marmosets promptly went through magnetic resonance MR imaging. MR scans were performed using a 9. Several MRI protocols were carried out for each individual marmoset. More details of the scan protocol can be found in Appendix 1. The current data set used to validate the method presented here includes injections. At each injection site, one retrograde and one anterograde tracer was injected separately to cover the efferent and afferent projections of that site.

Figure 2a,b shows currently covered injection sites. Two tracers, one anterograde and one retrograde, are injected at each site. Around Area 3a magnification box , six cortical layers and the white matter are clearly differentiable based on cell body density. Heavy myelination can be seen in layer three and continues into layer 4—6 with clear inner and outer bands of Baillarger. After injection into Area 10, CTB labeled neurons were found in the claustrum magnification box. The arrows indicate CTB- labeled cells at 0.

  • Population-averaged standard template brain atlas for the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).
  • :عنوان The Brain of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): A Stereotaxic Atlas |اف جِی.
  • The brain of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) a stereotaxic atlas.
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After tracer injection and a 4 week incubation period, the marmoset brain was perfused with a 0. Following fixation, the brain was transferred to 0. The brain was embedded in freezing agent Neg, Thermo Scientific Richard-Allan Scientific using a custom developed apparatus and a negative cast mold of the brain profile. The apparatus was submerged in an optimal cutting temperature compound to expedite the freezing process Pinskiy et al. More details can be found in Appendix 3.

This temperature differential was used to make certain the tissue was never in danger of being heated unnecessarily. Brains were cryo-sectioned coronally on a custom made cryostat stage using the tape transfer and UV exposure method Pinskiy et al. Every four consecutive sections were separately transferred to four adjacent slides, to establish the four series of brain sections to be stained for different methods.

Separate histological staining processes were performed on the different series of brain sections Appendix 5. The myelin staining technique used a modified ammoniacal silver stain originally developed by Gallyas Gallyas, The present modification provided higher resolution of fiber details that could be used for myeloarchitecture identification. A representative magnified image of myelin staining in the V4 middle temporal crescent visual cortex is shown in Figure 2d.

Finally, retrograde fluorescent tracers revealed originating somata while the anterograde tracers revealed projecting axons from fluorescent imaging. More detailed high-magnification images can be found in Figure 2—figure supplement 1. The pipeline adopted the Sakura Tissue-Tek Prisma system for high-throughput staining purposes. Figure 3 shows the overall steps as well as time taken to process one marmoset brain before moving to the computational pipeline starting with imaging.

Arrows show the sequence of individual experiments. A custom-made LIMS Laboratory Information Management System performs housekeeping for the entire process and constitutes an electronic laboratory notebook. Coverslipping includes the drying and clearing stages. The processing time does not include the overnight waiting period after sectioning in each batch. The overnight incubation time is excluded in the CTB procedure as well as the overnight dehydration in a myelin stain.

Process Time on the right shows the time involved in processing each experimental step, in hours. The Cycle Time in days shows the total time required to initiate and finish the entire procedure from start to finish, including quiescent periods, before commencing the procedure for another brain. Total time on the bottom is not a summation of the individual procedure times above because of parallel, pipelined processing which reduces total processing times. For example, when Nissl series are being processed in the automatic tissue staining machine for Nissls, CTB and myelin staining can be performed simultaneously at other workstations.

  1. :عنوان The Brain of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): A Stereotaxic Atlas |اف جِی.
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  4. Population-averaged standard template brain atlas for the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).
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  6. Including imaging, one full Nissl brain series can be completed in 6 days. The myelin series including imaging requires 6. The CTB series took a total of 7. The time for completion for the fluorescent brain series was 8 days; the slide scanning time on the Nanozoomer used in the project is approximately twice the brightfield scanning time. Overall, the four separate series of one brain could completed in two weeks a pipeline processing rate can be found in Appendix 8. The digitized brains are then passed onto the computational pipeline including atlas registration, cell and process detection and online presentation.

    All the prepared slides were scanned by series with a Nanozoomer 2. Nissl, myelin and CTB series were brightfield scanned. A Lumen Dynamics X-Cite exacte light source was used to produce the excitation fluorescence. In order to process these large data volumes, the pipeline includes networked workstations for data-acquisition, image processing and web presentations. All systems were connected to two directly attached data storage nodes to ensure that all data were continuously saved and backed up. All components were integrated with 10 Gigabit Ethernet 10G network to provide a cohesive solution Appendix 6.

    Imaging data were collected from the Nanozoomer and then automatically transferred to a data acquisition system. This step ensured uninterrupted scanning regardless of the limited disk space on the Nanozoomer system relative to the amount of data being acquired. The quality control QC service was applied to all stages of experimentation and image data flow in order to correct and improve the pipeline process organically.

    It supported the workflow by recording the detailed status of each experimental stage for each brain. Similarly, a separate online QC portal dictated all the image pre-processing stages Figure 4. Through the LIMS and QC portal, it was possible to flag damaged sections to avoid unnecessary post-processing and identified the need to repeat a specific processing stage. Arrows show the data flow. A quality control system is implemented at every stage of the pipeline until final data release.

    The display of the data portals is to allow interactive service. Image registration, cross-modal registration and automatic annotation, and tracing signal detection were performed in the image processing server. Images of individual sections were downsampled by 64 times and registered to one another using rigid-body transformation William et al.

    The transformation matrix for each downsampled image was applied to the corresponding full resolution image. A 3D global affine transformation was applied to move the atlas images into the coordinate space of the MRI images. The same method was applied again to the transformed atlas images in order to match the target Nissl images.

    Individual brain regions could be automatically identified based on the transformed atlas.

    The Brain/MINDS 3D digital marmoset brain atlas | Scientific Data

    Finally, the transformation matrices calculated from the downsampled images were applied to the corresponding full resolution images. The annotations from the transformed atlas were aligned with the histology images of each series. Other series including b myelin, c CTB and d fluorescence series were cross-registered to target Nissl series, and aligned with the atlas annotations. Only gray scale images are shown and they are sufficient for the registration process.

    The Brain/MINDS 3D digital marmoset brain atlas

    Sample sections in transverse left , sagittal middle , and coronal right were shown for each series. Injection volume was estimated by measuring the tracer spread at the injection site.

    Automatic cell and process detection was applied to individual registered sections in order to compute a draft whole-brain connectivity matrix.