Hydroecology and Ecohydrology: Past, Present and Future

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Conservation International, Washington DC.

Balancing uncertainty and complexity to incorporate fire spread in an eco-hydrological model

Maxted, L. Rico-Arce and G. Petts Ecohydrological and ecohydrographical methodologies applied to conservation of riparian vegetation: the Caura River as an example. Vispo, N. Dezzeo, L.

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Blanco, C. Knab-Vispo, N. Gonzalez, C. Bradley, D.


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Gilvear, G. Escalante, N. Chacon and G. Ecohydrology of riparian forests in the Orinoco river basin. Chapter 6, Pg. Cuenca, N. De Andrade.

Native colonizing species and degraded land restoration in La Gran Sabana, Venezuela. Restoration Ecology 5 2 : Petts and J. Salo Riparian flooded forests of the Orinoco and Amazon basins: A comparative review. Biodiversity and Conservation, 8 4 Seasonal variability of total dissolved fluxes and origin of major dissolved elements within a large tropical river: The Orinoco, Venezuela, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 4- A comparison of the suspended and dissolved matter dynamics of two large inter-tropical rivers draining into the Atlantic Ocean: the Congo and the Orinoco.

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Hydrological Processes. Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, Sara J. Leal, Wilmer A. Differences in crop bacterial community structure between hoatzins from different geographical locations, Research in Microbiology, Lasso and J. In both, diverse biota appear as moderators of water dynamics. In the terrestrial phase EHT , vegetation moderates water quantity and quality, and the major question is how plant-cover changes influence the hydrological cycle Rodriguez-Iturbe In the aquatic phase EHA , highly complex biotic interactions Zalewski et al. Considering various forms of freshwater ecosystem degradation, the reduction of point source pollution is dependent on technology, monitoring and law enforcement.

On the other hand, reducing the impact of diffuse pollution without lowering food production is dependent, first of all, on understanding the hierarchical complexity of ecological processes in the terrestrial ecosystem within the given river basin. Of utmost importance is the interplay between water and biocenosis — both in the terrestrial and aquatic phases of the hydrological meso-cycle. This creates a background for using land water ecotones in the landscape Naiman, Decamps, Fournier for mitigation of non-source pollutions and next has been enhanced by incorporation into ecological biotechnologies, e.

The quantification and integration of hydrological and biological processes at the basin scale is based on the assumption that abiotic factors are of primary importance and become stable and predictable when biotic interactions start to manifest themselves. The quantification starts from GIS analyses of catchment geomorphology and infrastructure distributions, next proceeding with patterns of hydrological pulses along the river continuum, its modification from the point of view of environmental flow Bunn, Arthington and identification of the spatial distribution of various forms of impact — point and non-point source pollution.

Due to the complexity of applied knowledge, the development of mathematical models for decision support systems is an important and useful tool to quantify processes water, nutrient and pollutants load and human impact for decision makers and to test alternative scenarios for the implementation of EH methodology for sustainable water use, ecosystems and societies Jorgensen , , Piniewski et al.

The ecological principle is based on the assumption that under intensive global changes it is not enough to protect ecosystems against increasing human population, energy consumption and aspirations.

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The starting point for such regulation should be an understanding of the evolutionary establishment of the water—biota interplay in the terrestrial and aquatic environment. The use of ecosystem properties as a management tool is based on the first and second principles of EH. This principle features three steps of implementation: 1. Harmonization of ecohydrological measures with necessary hydrotechnical solutions dams, irrigation systems, sewage treatment plants, etc.

Aquatic ecosystems and their catchments are complex entities when studied in a multidisciplinary approach.

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However, if the goal of scientific investigations is to regulate hydrological and biological potential for the enhancement of sustainability potential, regulation actions, e. Nature Based Solutions, require an additional reference point, society and traditional knowledge and their culturally-based preferences. Hence, ecosystem properties serve as management tools for sustainable development by respecting the quantitative side of the hydrological cycle.

The concept and principles of Ecohydrology have been implemented in the case of a small town in Poland, in the Pilica River Catchment , as an example of applying systemic ecohydrological solutions for the enhancement of catchment sustainability by converting environmental threats into opportunities for sustainable development.

Hydroecology and Ecohydrology

Purified sewage after primary and secondary treatment, but still with high concentrations of phosphorus, elevated the P concentrations and load in the river and reservoir below, resulting in frequently occurring toxic algal blooms. The transfer of purified sewage into a bioenergy producing plantation willow trees has reduced the load of phosphorus in the river and reservoir, improving the ecological and recreational status. Furthermore, the improvement of water quality in the river reservoir positively effects biodiversity, additionally creating employment opportunities for society through tourism development.

This in turn reduces poverty and stimulates cultural development and financial feedback taxes. Additionally, the use of bioenergy from the plantation for heating a nearby school and other public buildings has reduced greenhouse emissions and created further funds for employment. This example of the application of Ecohydrology, as a framework for systemic solutions in river catchment management, offers an example of the integration of Nature Based Solutions, Circular Economy and Bioeconomy Fig.

This demonstrates how ecohydrological process oriented thinking provides a framework for implementation of bio and circular economy. Nature Based Solutions used in the framework of EH have become the crucial tool for successful implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management, especially for mitigation of intermedia impact, which is prevailing for most catchment privileges.

Nutrients and chemical pollution from point and non-point sources is one of the key challenges for Ecohydrology. An implicit but major goal of EH, as a framework for the systemic implementation of Nature Based Solutions, is to reduce inputs to freshwater ecosystems and to regulate excess nutrient and pollutant loads in those aquatic systems by considering the allocation of nutrients and pollutants in non-available pools like soils, sediments, vascular plant biomass, and conversion of matter by organisms, phytotechnologies, denitrification barriers, etc.

However, it should be underscored that EH methods may be less efficient and have a lower potential when the biological structure of an ecosystem is highly degraded by intensive human impact, e. Commonwealth literature in English : past and present. Sandplay: Past, Present and Future.

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